The new satellite campus of the Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT) at Singapore Polytechnic (SP) and the polytechnic’s new sports hub were designed to not only to achieve Green Mark Platinum rating but also to ensure thermal comfort in the natural ventilated space. A variety of environmentally friendly design strategies ensure overall energy efficiency of the buildings.
Sun Path Analysis
Sun Path Analysis which studies the movement of the sun across the site throughout the year was used in establishing the building orientation, massing and location of the building components all of which impact and set the parameters for passive design strategies.
Daylighting and glare analysis
Daylighting Analysis facilitates optimum natural daylight and minimizes the heat gain through the glazing of the façade. The adoption of efficient daylight coupled with intelligent control enabled a substantial energy saving in artificial lighting. Glare analysis evaluates the impact of openings and natural light transmittance through the façade. It helps to improve the indoor visual comfort of the occupants by ensuring uniform light distribution indoors.
Day lighting and glare simulations were essential to ensure adequate luminance and uniformity such that room depth is optimized to achieve ideal daylight and glare factor. Computational analysis aided the skylight design to be a juxtaposition of high performance glazing and opaque aluminum, which minimized glare and allowed for optimum intensity of light level.
Other passive design strategies adopted include deep overhangs or recesses, facades exposed to heat gain which have been shaded with sun shading devices and performance glazing. The East-West facades that are most exposed to the sun are zoned for non-air conditioned spaces like corridors and toilets. The North-south site orientation allows class rooms with optimum room depth to achieve ideal daylight and to minimize the use of artificial lighting.
Thermal comfort was also achieved in air-conditioned spaces through careful selection of laminated, double-glazed and low-e glass. Window openings are configured to maximize day lighting while mitigating heat gain. Shading devices are also optimally integrated to provide appropriate shading of the façade. Thus the amount of solar heat gain by the façade is minimized which will lead to lowered energy consumption by the building air-conditioning system.
Natural wind driven ventilation analysis
Airflow analysis to understand how the prevailing wind interacts with the surrounding buildings so that solutions that will shape the building design to enhance the buildings wind permeability. The harnessing of natural ventilation helps to improve thermal comfort, enhance indoor air quality and lower dependence on mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning.
A detailed CFD study facilitated louver design and the percentage metal screen facade design such that it allows optimal natural ventilation without letting rain into the sports Hall. Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation tools were also used to examine ideal thermal comfort levels with regards to the natural ventilation at circulation spaces around the atrium and promote cross ventilation and enhance the stack effect.
HVLS fan simulation
CFD simulations helped to determine if the sports hall was sufficiently ventilated by prevailing winds. Since the span of the Sports hall was deep and huge to facilitate cross ventilation, high volume and low speed fans were installed at the sports hall to help to enhance the air flow within the space so as to achieve thermal comfort through the movement of air. The detailed study of the High Volume Low Speed fans provides a good indication of the impact of the fan on the air movement within the space
The computational simulation of the air flow profile of 3 High Volume Low Speed fans enabled the designer to not only to evaluate the impact of the fans on the air movement within the space but also to understand the interaction among the fans so as to ensure an optimal distance between the fans.