Sengkang General & Community Hospitals (SKGH) is designed to be an integrated General Hospital, a Community Hospital, and the Specialised Outpatient Clinics into one seamless and comprehensive medical facility in the Northeastern region of Singapore. DP Sustainable Design (DPSD) participated in the implementation of Green Mark Healthcare scheme for this integrated hospital and worked closely with all the stakeholders to ensure a smooth and pragmatic adoption of the new guidelines. DPSD also played an active role throughout the concept design phase by carrying out various environmental sustainable analysis and conducted workshops to lay a foundation that will lead to an energy efficient and thermally comfortable building design.
Sun Path analysis
Sun Path Analysis was carried to identify the sun cast direction and thus to enhance the façade fenestration to reduce solar heat gain to air-conditioning spaces. Studies showed that during March and September seasons, the sun is mostly overhead throughout the day except for evening when solar angles are lower from the West and hence façade facing the West is provided with horizontal shading. Extensive analysis was done to study the effectiveness of horizontal shading used in the East and West facades as non air-conditioning spaces are located along these part of the development and it was important to ensure that these spaces are well shaded.
Daylighting analysis was carried out to ensure an optimal amount of daylight into the space, as that will enhance the healing process as well as providing a conducive environment for the patients as well as healthcare providers.
The application of Sunpath analysis, sun shading and daylighting analysis enabled the DPSD consultant to derive an integrated road map of façade design that will ultimately not just enhance its thermal performance but also serves its fundamental functions effectively.
Natural Wind Driven Ventilation Analysis (Thermal comfort inside the wards)
CFD study was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of different type of openable windows to be used in natural ventilated spaces within the hospital. The effectiveness of the window in inducing air flow within the space is not just dependent on the size of openings but also very much influenced by the prevailing wind conditions.
Due to the importance of understanding the behavior of air flow near the vicinity of the window, fine meshing was developed around the window in the computational simulation so that a concise velocity profile of moving air around the window could be mapped out for analysis.
The results of the computational simulation of air movement through the windows enabled the designer to come out with effective window design that will facilitate air movement thereby enhancing the thermal comfort, which is highly critical in natural ventilated space.
In a bid to ensure the thermal comfort within the hospital environment and in compliance to Green Mark Healthcare Guidelines on thermal comfort in natural ventilated spaces within Healthcare facilities, DPSD simulated the airflow within the natural ventilated wards and analysed the impact of wall mounted fan on the thermal comfort of the occupants.
The spatial velocity plot of the wall mounted fan with streamlines illustrates the extent of coverage of each fan and shows the swirl added to the airstream.
The ageing of the air within the natural ventilated wards was also analysed in detailed to ensure that there would always be an acceptable level of air change within the space which is highly critical in a hospital environment. The analysis of the ageing of air within the space also enables the designer to identify potential area within the space that might not be well ventilated so that appropriate mitigation measures could be implemented to enhance the ventilation efficiency.